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                             - Au-del du principe de la culture -

                             - LE symptome en mouvement -

                             - La psychanalyse et luniversit  -  

                             - Orient-occident, une question de logique -

 

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                   Difficultes de comprehension du malade mental nord-africain en france

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                  - Religiousness, Anxiety And Salivary Cortisol In Egyptian Moslem Mothers Of Leukemic Children -  

                  - Application of  Progressive Matrices in The Sudan -  

                  - Coping strategies of traumatized children lost their father in the current conflict-

                  - Recognition of Facial Expressions With Reference To Age & Gender - .   

                  - General Overview of Traditional Healer Practices in Relation to Mental Health in Sudan -

            

   

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   /  SUMMARIES

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     - Au-del du principe de la culture - Corps bless et travail anthropologique du symptme  : Sliman Bouferda

1. Introduction : une question de mthode et de regard

Toute manifestation qui en appelle des procds thrapeutiques est voue faire admettre lanthropologique dans ses considrations. En atteste le fait qu diffrentes cultures correspondent des typologies du rapport, sinon au pathologique, du moins la folie . Lavnement dune symptomatologie ne serait donc pas sparable de son inscription dans la culture par le fait mme que celle-ci en dfinit la fois le statut, la valeur et le traitement. Cependant, la culture nest ni explicative du fait psychopathologique, ni en mesure de lui donner du sens. Elle nentreprend que dinstaurer la manire de le regarder, de le considrer et de ladmettre dans telle ou telle zone de ses rgulations intimes, cest--dire de ses stratgies de linclure ou de lexclure par rapport au systme quelle adopte pour fonctionner. En effet, le fait psychopathologique nadvient pas pour traduire le ratage de telle ou telle fonction normalisatrice, mais pour rendre encore plus subjectif, en investissant ltranget, lexpression des troubles psychiques au-del de ce que les structures dadmission entendent par lopposition entre normalit et anormalit. Ainsi, si lon estime que tout dsordre psychique ne peut se passer des inductions culturelles qui, en le prcdant, lui prescrivent des modalits langagires pour produire sa signification, cest quil se rapporte un ancrage anthropologique de la subjectivit qui vient prfigurer les diffrentes manifestations du clinique. Ces diffrentes manifestations constituent la seule condition qui permet de passer dune  thorie sociale de la maladie psychique, une thorie psychopathologique qui, elle, devrait annuler le prjug culturel afin dintroduire la dimension du sujet dans labord de la psych. Sinon, on se retrouve plus du ct de lalination, y compris celle du clinicien, que du ct de lanalyse qui permet de construire  des vrits  autour de ce que la culture  refoule  dans sa manire de dfendre ses valeurs de normation.  

  

 

   - Le Symptome En Mouvment : Adnane HOUBALLAH - Beirut, LEBANON

 

Le concept du symptme n'a cess d'voluer tout le long du dveloppement de la thorie analytique depuis la dcouverte Freudienne. Le symptme dsigne le point d'ancrage pour tout psychanalyste qui s'engage dans la cure, car il reprsente la formulation subjective de ce que peut tre sa souffrance psychique.

Que celle-ci rentre dans son conomie libidinale, elle ne peut que restituer une part de sa jouissance qui demeure en l'occurrence inavoue ou occulte. Donc souffrance et jouissance articules dans la formation du symptme, font partie de ce mouvement que subit son tre dans le droit l'existence, (sa tribu de la douleur d'exister).

Ce phnomne dpendrait du statut qu'occupe le sujet dans le mythe familial et social, de l'volution des certaines normes, de l'exigence idologique qui prside au fonctionnement de la socit.

De ce fait nous constatons que le concept du symptme dans le parcours Freudien n'a cess d'voluer tout le long de l'volution culturelle et sociale grce au dveloppement du discours de la modernit.

J'ai repr dans l'approche Freudienne du symptme trois tapes que je vais essayer de les schmatiser de la faon suivante.

 

 

- Psychanalyse et Universit : Abdelhadi ELFAKIR

Je remercie les responsables de l'Ecole Psychanalytique de Bretagne de m'avoir autoris prendre la parole lors de ces journes*, parole que je vais essayer de drouler partir du point de  rencontre  me concernant de  ces  deux  lieux : l'universit  et  la psychanalyse. Plus prcisment encore, je leur tmoigne ma reconnaissance de m'avoir ainsi amen envisager, pour la premire fois, de manire assez applique, cette frange de la thorie lacanienne relative aux discours. Je vais essayer ici - en prenant le risque de me hasarder profrer des contre sens - d'en reprendre trs brivement quelques lments, de les faire jouer autour de certains aspects de ma trajectoire personnelle et de mon parcours professionnel.

 

 

 

 -  Orient-Occident, une question de logique: Karim Jbeili

Introduction

Ce texte fait partie dun travail densemble entrepris depuis quelques annes, visant appliquer la psychanalyse dans le champ du collectif. Il sagira cette fois dobserver et danalyser lOrient et lOccident ainsi que les rapports quils entretiennent la lumire de la logique et de la psychanalyse. Il va falloir, pour commencer, donner lOrient et lOccident une dfinition qui ne relve pas de lintuition mais de la logique. Dfinition qui nous sera trs utile par la suite.

Cette dfinition se rduit curieusement peu de choses. LOrient est le domaine de lUn. Cest--dire, grosso modo, le monde musulman, lest asiatique et la nbuleuse orthodoxe. LOccident, en revanche, est le domaine de la dualit. L o la matire soppose lesprit, l o la chair sanguinolente du Christ sur la croix contraste avec sa rsurrrection. Il sagit, en gros du monde catholique et protestant.

Chacun de ces deux mondes a construit une logique particulire. La logique de lUn, pour lOrient et la logique du Deux, pour lOccident. Cees deux logiques ne sont pas indpendantes lune de lautre. La psychanalyse a rvl combien ces deux logiques sont intriques lintrieur dune mme personne mme si elles sopposent de part et dautre du mur du refoulement. Cette intrication se retrouve a fortiori au niveau des collectivits. Ceci pour dire que lunivers qui privilgie la logique du Un, va devoir se battre en lui-mme pour carter la logique du Deux. Ceci est vrai, mutatis mutandis, pour celui qui aura privilgi la logique du Deux.

Les particularits de chacune de ces logiques seront dveloppes dans la suite du texte. Mais il faudra garder lesprit que si, en apparence, la logique de lOrient soppose celle de lOccident, en ralit cest plutt chaque logique qui soppose lautre au sein mme de chaque ensemble. Ce nest que dune faon secondaire quelle sopposera lautre camp, qui ne sera lui-mme peru qu travers son propre conflit intrieur.

 

 

 

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-     Rsum de "l'me dans la vision islamique et dans la vision philosophique"  Sayed el Amine

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-     Rsum de "Propos sur la psych dans la tradition arabe, entre la vision des anctres, la crativit des prdcesseurs et l'chec des contemporains" Par Dr. Hussein Abdel Kader.

 

 

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           Difficultes de comprehension du malade mental nord-africain en france

Cette note de recherche a pris naissance dans lexprience de toute une anne passe comme interne l'hpital psychiatrique du VINATIER. Etant originaire d'Afrique du Nord, je fus souvent appel ce titre ' mentretenir avec des malades nord-africains, et ce, sur la demande dautres mdecins ayant des "difficults, avec eux.

En outre, pendant l'anne universitaire, jai particip a un certain nombre de journes dtude, de sminaires et de groupes de travail ayant pour thme commun : les     problmes poss par le malade mental nord-africain.

Ce que je constatais chaque fois , et qui tait galement remarqu par les participants, soignants aussi bien que soigns, c'tait l'incomprhension fondamentale et mutuelle du mdecin traitant et du malade. Un tel fait mritait donc une attention particulire et soulevait une question : en quoi dcide cette incomprhension? et quelles en sont les -dimensions principales ?

Tout dabord, la langue, qui est un lment important dans la communication ou Iincommunication ... En psychiatrie surtout, Ientretien avec le malade est un moment capital.. Or. si le malade  prouve de grandes difficults s'exprimer, la valeur de Ientretien est nulle. Cependant, il-n'en demeure pas moins que malgr un bon vocabulaire franais, des difficults de comprhension persistent. Il faut donc inclure d'autres dimensions : religieuse, culturelle, sociale (situation d'immigr). Ce qui attirait mon attention de faon constante, ctait la contenu du discours de lentretien suivant que le malade s'adressait un mdecin franais ou moi. Ainsi, dans le premier cas, l'histoire de la maladie prend une allure rationnelle : il sagit souvent de troubles faisant suite un accident de travail, ou    une maladie organique  (tat grippal par exemple) La demande    se situe au niveau de la rparation de l'accident du travail ou au niveau d'une prise de mdicaments. Au cours de notre entretien, le patient mapporte un tout autre matriel, mettant en jeu     des croyances religieuses, mythologiques, des pratiques de sorcellerie ou de magie. Ce nest plus le  jai mal partout . mais la conviction d'une maladie de son esprit lie la fois son pass, sa culture et sa situation prsente. Cette conviction, chaque fois qu'il est possible de la vrifier, est partage et entretenue par Ientourage.

Une question se pose :cette dichotomie au niveau du discours est-elle voulue seulement par le malade, et dans quel but ? A-t-il simplement cherch cacher ou simuler, ou tait-il induit par l'environnement (la socit europenne aussi bien lextrieur qu' l'intrieur de l'hpital psychiatrique) pour donner une thse conforme cet environnement ?

Cette tude a pour but, d'une part, de mettre en relief cette incomprhension fondamentale et d'autre part, de tenter de lexpliciter.

Pour ce faire, ma dmarche sera la suivante : prsenter dabord rapidement le matriel utilis pour cette note puis montrer Iimportance de l'immigration l'heure actuelle. Je me pencherai en suite sur l'tat de la question afin de voir les travaux qui ont dj t effectus dans ce domaine.

J'aborderai ensuite les diffrente lments de l'incomprhension : la langue, la religions les croyances, et l'hostilit de Ienvironnement. Ceci se faisant travers de nombreuses observations de malades Nord-africaine. Je cderai ensuite la parole aux autres participants de cette "aventure" les malades franais, lquipe infirmire et le mdecin.

Une dernire partie sera consacre organiser cet diffrente 'lments. par le biais d'une analyse aussi  bien, psychologique sociologique.

Pour cette tude, diffrents lments ont servi de matriel: quelques observations assez dtailles de malades vus conjointement par un confrre franais et moi-mme. Il s'agit de patients de Ihpital psychiatrique du Vinatier, du dispensaire d'hygine mentale (centre de Sant) et de la consultation psychiatrique de orange Blanche.

- des journes dl tudes, notamment

         le colloque sur les travailleurs migrants, organis par lassociation lyonnaise de criminologie et d'anthropologie sociale (18-3-1972).

         La Journe organise par le Centre Rgional pour l'Enfance et ladolescence Inadapte sur le thme :le jeune algrien dans les tablissements spcialiss (15-5-1972)

         un groupe d'tude au Vinatier au quel participaient des infirmiers, des psychologues, des internes.

La dbat portait sur les problmes poss par les nord-africains dans les services psychiatriques.

L'accent tait mis sur les origines du "malaise" caus par leur prsence dans le service, avec une tentative danalyser le comportement et les motivations de Iinstitution (quipe soignante : mdecin infirmier -psychologue, et les autres malades franais)

une "table ronde" avec la participation de quatre chefs de service et de quatre internes pour essayer d'analyser la vcu du psychiatre face au malade nord-africain.

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(Gender differences in intellectual academic achievement)

Keywords: gender differences, Locus of control, attribution and academic achievement.

Abstract:

The study aimed to examine the affect of gender towards intellectual academic achievement within Libyan context, the intellectual achievement responsibility questionnaire (Crandall, Katkovsky & Crandallm1965) used for data collection. The results of the study indicated that there were no significant differences between the samples of males and females in intellectual academic achievement.  

(Lefcurt,1979,287) (Wiener's Theory,1971) : (Ability) (Effort) (Task difficulty ) (Luck) ( 1995 35 ) .

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Les travailleurs  posts ( 3x8) s'exposent a plusieurs situations stressantes qui comportent des expriences indsirables  des vnements l'origine de beaucoup de tensions et de facteurs  de risque et de menace dans tous les domaines de leurs vie .Tous ces vnements   jouent un rle dans l'apparition plusieurs symptmes:dpression,angoisse et stress qui entranent un dsquilibre psychique et physique .

Pour cela, le chercheur a apte pour une comparaison entre les rsultants des travailleurs posts et permanents pour confirmer ou infirmer les hypothses.

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Abstract:            

The main purpose of the current study was to identify risk factors leading to sexual perversion. A case study was applied to six cases. The main findings of the present research show the following:  (1) family is one of the key elements in causing sexual perversion; (2) results of the present research confirm the seriousness of sexual assault on children in early stages and the role it can play in sexual deviance; (3) peers influence has been found to have an important impact on sexual perversion because of the negative pressure practiced by group members or through observation and/or imitation; and (4) results of Eysenk's Personality Scale demonstrate that Neuroticism and Extraversion dimensions were found in the all samples.

 

 

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L're nouvelle, celle de la mondialisation, de la socit de l'information et des bouleversements scientifiques et  techniques, a eu des consquences dterminantes sur le rle que jouent les bibliothques universitaires classiques. L'volution vers la socit cognitive, fait face aux plus grands dfis, que ces bibliothques ont d affronter.

Dans la prsente tude mene au niveau de l'universit de Stif, nous a permis de parvenir des rsultats, qui place a notre avis la bibliothque classique devant une situation dlicate. Celle-ci tait considre comme un espace de prdilection aux chercheurs et enseignants, n'est, malheureusement pas, en mesure de leur fournir des moyens d'acquisitions plus utiles. Une nouvelle voie reprsente par les technologies de l'information apparat (l'Internet et la numrisation des documents). C'est grce son efficacit qu'elle est largement mise en uvre comme une alternative de l're actuelle. C'est dans cette optique qu'on a pu relever que la bibliothque lectronique est la plus en vogue.

Mots cls: Bibliothque, technologie, information, chercheur.

 

 

 - Religiousness, Anxiety And Salivary Cortisol In Egyptian Moslem Mothers Of Leukemic Children : Mounir Fawzi, Mohab Fawzi, Wail Assal, Maggie Fawzi.

 

ABSTRACT

Objective: To  examine the effects of religiousness, on anxiety level and neuroendocrine functioning, in mothers of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL).

Methods: Participants: 58 mothers, consecutively admitted with their children, at Hematology and Oncology Unit, Pediatric Department, Zagazig University Hospitals, where the children were starting treatment for recently diagnosed ALL. Mothers were assessed with Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAS), Acts of Worship Index, Religious Coping Index, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Diurnal salivary cortisol profiles were also determined.

Results: All mothers used religion for coping. They were classified however, into 3 groups: highly(N=23), moderately (N= 21) and, slightly (N=14) religious group. The moderately religious group had significantly lower HAS scores than the other 2 groups (p <0.01). It also showed rhythmic cortisol profiles, while cortisol profile, of the other 2 groups, appeared flattened.

Conclusions: When a child is diagnosed with leukemia, the family experiences great stress and anxiety. Our findings showed that, anxiety of Egyptian Moslem mothers, of children with recently diagnosed leukemia, is higher in those with either very high or very low religiousness, than in the moderately religious group. Thus, religion, in moderation, appears to be potentially effective method of coping, with a protective effect on the physiological changes of anxiety. Its positive integration into the care of mothers caring for leukemic children is warranted.

Abbreviations: ALL= acute lymphocytic leukemia; AWI-E= Acts of Worship Index- External (social) worships; AWI-I= Acts of Worship Index- Internal  (private) worships; AWI-T= Acts of Worship Index- Total score; ELISA= enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay; HAS= Hamilton Anxiety Scale; MSC= Mean salivary cortisol; MSPSS = Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support; RCI= Religious Coping Index.

Declaration of interest: None.

 - Application of  Progressive Matrices in The Sudan : Salaheldin Farah Attallah

Abstract

This report intended to reveal the efforts which took place  in the Sudan to identify the psychometric properties, standardization, & norms of the progressive matrices tests. The report showed the studies on standard progressive matrices (SPM), & coloured progressive matrices (CPM), from 1998 to 2007 and reported its results.

Introduction

Although the first application of intelligence tests in the Sudan was done by a pioneer British educator, Scott in 1944, and supervised by Vernon the greatest psychologist (Scott, 1946, 1948, 1950), Scott measured Sudanese intelligence at that time by using adaptive version of Ballard intelligence test, and he did not use the famous  British test Standard progressive matrices (SPM), which is founded in 1938.

The standardization of SPM was belated five decades after the trials of Scott, the test has been standardized by Alkhateeb & Almotwakel in 1998, from that history the test was available for researchers, but the report of their study was published in 2001 (Alkhateeb & Almotwakel,2001). The CPM, Coloured  progressive matrices was standardized by Alkhateeb,  Almotwakel, & Hussein, in 2006. Now there is study running to standardize the APM. The SPM after its standardization in Sudan is mainly used in researches specially in MA thesis & PHD dissertations, also it used for Identification of gifted, and occupational  selection.

 

 - Coping strategies of traumatized children lost their father in the current conflict : Al arjani , Abdel Aziz Mousa Thabet, Panos Vostanis

Abstract

Background: The study aimed to examine the traumatic events that experienced by children lost their father in the current conflict and the coping strategies that adopted by them in front of stressful situations and father loss crisis.

Method: The sample consisted of 250 children from the martyrs families in Gaza strip governorates by representative sample of 112 males and 138 females aged 10-16 years old.  The researcher used descriptive analytical design to represent the entire sample of the population.  However, the researcher used some of modified scales from which; socioeconomic questionnaire for children lost their father in the current conflict developed by the researcher; Gaza Traumatic event checklist (Thabet, 2004); and A COPE (Carver, 1989) translated and modified to Palestinian community by the researcher.

Results: The most common traumatic event for children lost their father in the current conflict was witnessing photos of martyrs and injured in TV by 92.8%.

There were significant differences between trauma levels according to sex in favor of males from the martyrs children.

There were significant differences between trauma levels according to age in favor of older children who classified between "13-16" years.

The most used coping strategy was religious coping (86.4%), but the lowest coping strategy was substance use (30.3%).

There were significant differences between positive reinterpretation and growth, religious coping according to sex in favor of females.

There were significant differences between the means of positive reinterpretation and growth, mental disengagement, focus on and venting of emotion, use of instrumental social support, active coping, religious coping, restraint, and planning according to trauma levels in favor of severe traumatic events.

There were significant differences between the means of denial, restraint, and suppression of competing activities according to the type of residence to the advantage of children lost their father in the current conflict who live in villages.

There were significant differences between the means of use of instrumental social support, active coping, denial, behavioral disengagement, acceptance, and suppression of competing activities according to mothers' educational level for the benefit of illiterate mothers.

There were significant differences between the means of positive reinterpretation and growth, use of instrumental social support, active coping, religious coping, suppression of competing activities, and planning according to family income in the interest of families with low income.

 

 - Recognition of Facial Expressions With Reference To Age & Gender : Ambreen Zafar &Adnan Adil

Abstract: This study aimed at finding the extent of recognition of facial expressions with reference to age and gender. Phase I of the study included translation of Facial Meaning Sensitivity Test (Leathers, 1980). A pilot study (N = 60) demonstrated satisfactory index of reliability and construct validity. In Phase II, the main study (N = 150), sample was divided into three categories age wise. The highest correct recognition was found for facial expression of happiness on step I and II of FMST, and for fear on step III. The lowest score was on disgust on step I, and on bewilderment and anticipation on step II and III respectively. The overall least correct responses were obtained on Step II. No gender effect could be obtained on any of the steps. Age group 17- 30 years yielded the highest correct recognition rate on all three steps. The interactive effect of age and gender could only be seen on step I where women of 17-30 years of age scored the highest.

Key Words: Facial Expressions, Gender, Age

 - General Overview of Traditional Healer Practices in Relation to Mental Health in Sudan : Ehab Ali Sorketti Koriana

The WHO defines traditional medicine as the total combination of knowledge and practices , whether explicable or not , used in diagnosing ,preventing or eliminating physical , mental or social diseases and which may rely exclusively on past experience and observation handed down from generation to generation verbally or in writing. A traditional healer is defined by WHO as a person recognized by the community in which he lives as competent to provide health care using plants , animals or mineral products, or using any religious or social methods acceptable by the population  in the community where he lives. Traditional healer is an educated or lay person who claims ability or a healing power to cure ailments, or a particular skill to treat specific types of complaints or afflictions and who might have gained a reputation in his own community or elsewhere. They may base their powers or practice on religion, the supernatural, experience, apprenticeship or family heritage, Traditional healers may be males or females and are usually mature.

Traditional beliefs and religion play an important role in the socio-cultural and political life of the people in the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. The family and community hold a central position in the life of the individual, and they make a tremendous contribution to the therapeutic process. Native faith healers are found in all parts of the Region, where they are held in high regard and are considered to be spiritual or moral guides. They are consulted for a range of ailments including physical illness, emotional problems, congenital defects or disappointments in love, family or business. The WHO studies of pathways to care have  

shown native faith healers to be an important source of care for people who ultimately attend psychiatric services. In Sudan a symbiotic working relationship has been developed with faith healers working in the area over a period of more than 30 years as part of community-based mental health programmes. There was great deal of initial resistance by the faith healers who considered the mental health professionals as competitors, but a non-confrontational approach brought home the message that indeed there are areas, particularly in cases of emotional disorders, where collaboration between the two is possible. Such collaboration has gradually been formalized in order to set up referral channels for people with mental and brain illnesses, particularly psychoses and epilepsy. Studies carried out in Pakistan have shown that there is no discernible relationship between the systems of diagnosis and treatment followed by faith healers and psychiatrists. However, the former do provide a source of care which can be harnessed constructively in order to provide culturally acceptable care to large number of people, at the same time integrating components of the local health belief model (WHO 2001).

The importance of traditional healing methods in developing countries can not be underestimated and it is generally perceived as part of the prevailing religion and belief system. Literature have highlighted that traditional healers are often seen as the primary agents for psychosocial problems in developing countries, estimates of their share service range as high as 45 % to 60 %( WHO1992). Several researches effort has been devoted to study traditional healer services in different cultures. The world health organization on 2000 estimated that 80% of populations living in rural areas in developing countries depend on traditional medicine for their health needs.

The WHO defines traditional medicine as the total combination of knowledge and practices , whether explicable or not , used in diagnosing ,preventing or eliminating physical , mental or social diseases and which may rely exclusively on past experience and observation handed down from generation to generation verbally or in writing. A traditional healer is defined by WHO as a person recognized by the community in which he lives as competent to provide health care using plants , animals or mineral products, or using any religious or social methods acceptable by the population  in the community where he lives. Traditional healer is an educated or lay person who claims ability or a healing power to cure ailments, or a particular skill to treat specific types of complaints or afflictions and who might have gained a reputation in his own community or elsewhere. They may base their powers or practice on religion, the supernatural, experience, apprenticeship or family heritage, Traditional healers may be males or females and are usually mature.

Traditional beliefs and religion play an important role in the socio-cultural and political life of the people in the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. The family and community hold a central position in the life of the individual, and they make a tremendous contribution to the therapeutic process. Native faith healers are found in all parts of the Region, where they are held in high regard and are considered to be spiritual or moral guides. They are consulted for a range of ailments including physical illness, emotional problems, congenital defects or disappointments in love, family or business. The WHO studies of pathways to care have  

shown native faith healers to be an important source of care for people who ultimately attend psychiatric services. In Sudan a symbiotic working relationship has been developed with faith healers working in the area over a period of more than 30 years as part of community-based mental health programmes. There was great deal of initial resistance by the faith healers who considered the mental health professionals as competitors, but a non-confrontational approach brought home the message that indeed there are areas, particularly in cases of emotional disorders, where collaboration between the two is possible. Such collaboration has gradually been formalized in order to set up referral channels for people with mental and brain illnesses, particularly psychoses and epilepsy. Studies carried out in Pakistan have shown that there is no discernible relationship between the systems of diagnosis and treatment followed by faith healers and psychiatrists. However, the former do provide a source of care which can be harnessed constructively in order to provide culturally acceptable care to large number of people, at the same time integrating components of the local health belief model (WHO 2001).

The importance of traditional healing methods in developing countries can not be underestimated and it is generally perceived as part of the prevailing religion and belief system. Literature have highlighted that traditional healers are often seen as the primary agents for psychosocial problems in developing countries, estimates of their share service range as high as 45 % to 60 %( WHO1992). Several researches effort has been devoted to study traditional healer services in different cultures. The world health organization on 2000 estimated that 80% of populations living in rural areas in developing countries depend on traditional medicine for their health needs.

 

 

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    : Delirium Dementia - Delusion

 

    : Dmence - Dpendance  - Dpression - Dsir

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Document Code PJ.0181

APNeJ18

PJ.0181

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