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                                     - Psychiatry and Arab Laws  : Numan Gharaibeh

                                     - Laanta Buur: My Political Prison -  Mahamud Mohamed Yahya

 

 

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                - Cultural Perspectives On Mental Health Practice in Arab Cultures - Abdessatar Ibrahim

                - Siege and Quality of Life of Palestinians in the Gaza Strip -  Abdelaziz Mousa Thabet

                - Stress and stress associated psychophysiological difficulties -   Abdessatar Ibrahim

                - Children of Iraqi Families at Universiti Sains Malaysia - Najla & Nouzarina

                - The relationship between Siege of Gaza Strip, anger, and psychological symptoms - Abdelaziz Mousa Thabet

                - Quels Facteurs Etiologiques Organiques Dans La Deficience Mentale - Hela Ayedi & Frand

                - Approche Neuropsychologique Des Les Dysphasie Developpementales - Saida Brahmi

 

    

       

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     - Psychiatry and Arab Laws  : Numan Gharaibeh - USA

Abstract:

I reviewed the literature regarding available legislation applicable to mental health in 13 Arab countries. Academic literature in English had very little information. I relied heavily on the World Health Organizations publications. The websites of the Ministries of Health in the Arab world were searched for legislation texts in Arabic with variable success.

 Disclaimer: In this article the term Arabas in Arab laws, Arab countries Arab world, Arab citizens, etceterais not intended to refer to ethnicity. It is used for the sake of narrative ease to refer to the laws, citizens, countries, etc. of the 22 member states of the Arab League; arranged alphabetically, they are: Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, E - gypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia , Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Yemen. The term by no means was intended to disregard or disrespect the very significant ethnic groups that form an important part of the so-called Arab world such as Afars, Africans, Armenians, Assyrians, Balochs, Berbers (Amazighs, Chawis, Chenwa, Kabyles, Rifains, Saharan Berbers, Shleuhs, and Touareq), Chaldeans, Chechens, Copts, Kurds, Maronites, Persian, Somali, Turkmen, and others

  

 

  - Laanta Buur: My Political Prison: Mahamud Mohamed Yahya Somalia / KSA

PREFACE (by N. Gharaibeh, MD )

This article is not an academic or research study. The reason it is in this issue is that Correctional Psychiatry was not addressed. There are around 370 thousand prisoners in the Arab world and about 150 thousand prisoners with mental illness, addiction, or both.

This account by Dr. Yahya, a highly educated Somali was included just to give a glimpse into the mental suffering in Arabic prisons and a first hand account of the conditions there. The situation today may be no different than 20 or so years ago in Somalia (may be even worse).

Psychiatrists have some ethical burden to at least document the suffering of prisoners especially those with mental illness who cannot advocate for themselves.

 

 

             

 

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Abstract : Psychological therapies are equal players alongside physical and social measures in the management and prevention of mental and emotional disorders related to old age. Cognitive behavior therapy ( CBT), among all types of psychological therapies, is promoted by the well established resources of research as the first line psychotherapeutic treatment discipline for a wide range of psychiatric problems in older people who suffer from affective disorders and depression. CBT undoubtedly has much in its favor. It is a an attractive, efficient therapy  that is relatively easy to learn and deliver and produces good results in many instances. However, the use of CBT with older people in Arab countries has been almost absent or slowly developed both theoretically and operationally, to say the least. This presentation is an invitation from the present writer to health practitioners to become aware of the role of CBT practice  by using a multi- modal CBT integrated with concepts of positive psychology, in dealing with some major psychiatric disorders (e.g. depression and mood difficulties), which are directly or indirectly associated with old age.

More specifically, the main points of this presentation would be outlined as follows: (1) Identifying major distorted thinking patterns common among depressed old people by using common assessment tools including interviewing and standarlized Arabian assessment tools developed by the speaker to identify both distorted- irrational- thought and positive- thought patterns; (2) Treatment techniques acceptable for use in psychotherapeutic services delivery including identifying target behaviours, treatment goals, and selection of the therapeutic techniques.

 

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The effectiveness of Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) among Patients with depression ) in the reinforcement of coping cognitive processes(

Abstract

The aim of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) in the reinforcement of coping cognitive processes among Patients with depression  at Eltigani Elmahy Psychiatric Hospital in Sudan in the light of some demographic variables such as age, gender. The true experimental method was employed and the sample comprised of (30) subjects: (15) experimental and (15) control from depression patients. The following tools were administered: (a) Coping Processes Scale in pre and post test. (b) Irrational Thoughts List as pre and post test .(c) Rational Emotive therapy as independent variable on experimental group .The results indicated that:- the Therapeutic program was effective in enhancing coping Cognitive processes .And effective after follow up period .  No significant statistical differences on score of coping Cognitive processes after therapy attributed to gender and age. Finally, some recommendations and suggestions were reached.

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RESUME: Nous essayons, dans cet article, de faire un bref expos sur les tests associatifs qui tudient les reprsentations sociales.

Nous avons relat  les conditions, les consignes, les avantages et les types de ces tests ; comme le test de rseau dassociation et le test de schmes cognitifs de base.

On a galement donn une brve aperue sur le rle jou par ces tests dans lexploration des reprsentations sociales    

MOTS CLES

- test association  -reprsentation sociale noyau central.

 

 

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 Symbiotic . . Separation individuation

 

 

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- Cultural Perspectives On Mental Health Practice in Arab Cultures - Abdel-Sattar Ibrahim -  Egypt

Abstract:  Individuals in Arabian cultures, as in any other culture, are forced into different life experiences, and, therefore, deliberately and inadvertently, develop many different and unique cultural values and perspectives. When we practice therapy, these differences must be taken into account before maximum success in therapy can be achieved. This presentation concentrates on exactly this premise. Based on personal practice, anthropological studies, psychosocial research, and personal observations, themes central to four major shared social and psychological characteristics including religious orientation; communal values; sex taboos; and authority-obedience orientation have been identified. The role of such dimensions in facilitating or hindering treatment effectiveness as pertain to: identifying target behavior; selecting treatment techniques; and identifying treatment goals and prognosis criteria have been analyzed. Illustrative case studies and research findings have been cited in support of our assumptions.

 

- Siege and Quality of Life of Palestinians in the Gaza Strip  - Thabet A.A & Abu Tawahina A & Eyad El Sarraj & Panos Vostanis - Palestine

Abstract

Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate impact of siege on Palestinians live in Gaza Strip and quality of life.

Methods: A random sample of  386 subject were selected from the entire Gaza Strip. The age ranged from 18 to 64 years with mean age was 41.53 years. The subjects were interviewed using self administrated questionnaire which  include sociodemographic scale, Impact of  Siege on Gaza Checklist, and World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF)

Results :The results showed that impact of siege items were:  prices are sharply increased (97.67%), I feel I am in a big prison (92.23%), I can not find things I need in the market (91.70%), I quitted some purchased daily needs (88.30%), and social visits are less than before (85.23%). No statistically significant sex differences in mean impact of siege. The results showed that only 11.8% of Palestinians were satisfied with their general health and only 8% said that they enjoy their life. Out of them, 38.9% were satisfied with their personal relationships, 30.91% had negative feelings, such as blue mood, despair, anxiety, depression,  30.5% satisfied with their spirituality, religion and personal beliefs,  29.09% satisfied with their bodily appearance, and 26.5% had pain and discomfort. The results showed that quality of life scores mean was 64.19, psychical domain mean was 18.37,  psychological domain mean  was 17.67, social domain mean was 8.71, and environmental domain mean was 19.47. Males scored more in social domain. The results showed that there were statistically significant negative correlation between total siege scores and quality of life in which people that scored more in siege items had less total quality of life, physical domain, psychological domain, social domain, and environmental domain. The following items of impact of siege were predicated bad QOL suffering of being not able to receive proper medical care,  can not find some of the necessary things for my children (Milk, napkins, etc), feel in a big prison, went to Zakat organizations and other organizations to get the food,  and started doing the papers for immigration.

Conclusion: The results of this study that impact of siege is so obvious in Palestinians live in Gaza Strip and bad quality of life is expected if people are not able to receive medical care, can not find necessary things, stocked in Gaza and feel as in prison, being dependent in food from NGOs. 

Key word: Siege, quality of life, Gaza Strip

- Stress and stress associated psychophysiological difficulties - Abdel-Sattar Ibrahim - Egypt

 

 

By focusing on personal practice experiences and research developed by the current author, this report aims to assist psychological health practitioners to become aware of the role of  the psychological health practitioner in dealing, directly or indirectly, with stress and stress related problems underlying psychosomatic disorders (PD). The writer has practiced professional psychology for over three decades both in Michigan, USA and in a number of Arabian countries. One of his work activities, in addition to university teaching, research, writing, was in psychotherapy. This presentation reviews major research findings in dealing with patterns of PD and stress associated difficulties in Arab patients. As in any Anglo-American culture,  Psychological health practices in Arab countries consist, , of assessment and intervention. For both assessment and intervention processes the model of my choice relied heavily on a multi-modal, culturally adapted, cognitive therapy approach. More specifically, the main points of this article can be outlined as follows: (1) A review of major patterns of PD and related stress difficulties among Arab patients are reviewed (2) Assessment techniques developed for practice with psychosomatic symptomatic patterns are explained with emphasis on assessment tools developed and standardized for practice in Arabia are explained. (3) The importance of integrating cognitive therapy and positive psychology principles with medical approaches of treatment are discussed and (4) The need to incorporate cultural values into the treatment process will be identified.

 

- Children of Iraqi Families at Universiti Sains Malaysia  - Najla N. Wadaa & Norzarina Mohd Zaharim -Malysia

 The war in Iraq since 2003 has caused PTSD and a lot of suffering among Iraqis. However, the prevalence of PTSD among the Iraqis is unknown and undocumented. This paper aims to shed some light on this phenomenon. This study had three specific objectives: (1) to investigate the prevalence of PTSD among Iraqi children living at USM; (2) to explore the childrens coping strategies in dealing with PTSD; and (3) to determine whether or not the children received health care for PTSD prior to participation in this study. Participants were 60 children of Iraqi students at USM, ranging from 7 to 12 of age (mean age = 10.17; 29 boys and 31 girls). UCLA PTSD DSM-IV (Revision 1) was used to determine the childrens PTSD status. A questionnaire was developed and used to investigate the coping strategies used by these children. The result of this study showed that there is a high prevalence of PTSD. Moreover, the results have also shown the existence of negative ways of dealing with PTSD among these Iraqi children. The study also revealed effective approaches to coping with this disorder. Finally, the children seemed to suffer from PTSD in similar ways as adults, even after resettling in a new and safe land.

 

- The relationship between Siege of Gaza Strip, anger, and psychological symptoms - Thabet A.A & Abu Tawahina A & Eyad El Sarraj & Panos Vostanis - Palestine

Abstract

Background: During the last two years of siege, Palestinian families in the Gaza Strip were exposed to a variety of stressors and traumatic events due to Israelis violence including incursion, bombardment, shelling of the area,   and closure of the borders which had very negative impact on psychological wellbeing.    

Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of siege of the Gaza Strip on Palestinians feelings of anger and anger state in relation psychological symptoms in relation to other socioeconomic variables.

Methodology: A random sample of 386 adults ' age range (18-64 years) selected from a community base.  The subjects were interviewed using the following tools: Sociodemographic scale, Gaza Siege Checklist, Symptom Checklist (BSI-53), and  

StateTrait Anger Expression Inventory.  

Results: The results showed that the most common impact of siege of Gaza items were:  prices are sharply increased (97.67%), I feel I am in a big prison (92.23%), I cannot find things I need in the market (91.70%), I quitted some purchased daily needs (88.30%), and social visits are less than before (85.23%). The main psychopathology showed that 75.91 % feel worthlessness, 56.5% blaming themselves  for things, 55.7%  feel that everything in life is difficult, 54.4% had nervousness, 41.8%  feel tense or keyed up, and 41.1% feel easily annoyed or irritated. 

The results showed that females reported more somatization, obsessive compulsive disorder, and phobic anxiety.  Palestinians live in camps reported more general psychological problems, somatization, obsessive compulsive problems,   interpersonal sensitivity,   depression symptoms,   anxiety, hostility,  phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation than those in cities and village. However,  psychosis symptoms  were more common in people live in villages than in camps cities and. The results showed that there were statistically significant positive correlation between total siege scores and BSI  in which people who scored more in siege items had more psychopathology, somatization, obsessive compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, panic (phobic anxiety), paranoid ideation, and psychosis.

The results showed that the psychological problems were predicted by had suffering of not able to receive proper medical care, feel being in a big prison, sold some of furniture and gold, was not able to get specific medicine for themselves or for one of the family member, quitted  purchasing daily needs.

The study showed that the most common anger state were: I feel upset (18.4%) and I barely burned from the inside (10.4%).  While trait of anger items were: I feel upset when my work is not appreciated (21.1%), I became angry when I did a good job and get the estimate is weak (19.9%), and I am angry when mistakes of others delayed my work (16.1%). The results showed that the total anger state was predicted by were not able to get specific medicine for me or for one of the family member, thought of

Immigration, one of the family members died due to prevention of traveling for treatment, their work affected so much due to shortage of fuel, papers, medicine, and raw materials,   feel they are in a big prison. While anger trait was predicted by: I was not able to get specific medicine for me or for one of the family member, I feel I am in a big prison, and my work affected so much due to cut off electricity, row materials.

Clinical implication and recommendations

In this study, impact of siege on the Palestinians feelings of anger and inability to ventilate their anger, beside other socioeconomic adversities due to closure of the borders and unemployment due to siege lead to more psychological problems. This highlight the need to break down the siege of Gaza by the help of the international organizations and this could be by lobbying with local and international human rights and civil society organizations to left the siege.

Key word: Siege of Gaza, Psychological problems, Anger state, Anger trait

 

 

 - Quels Facteurs Etiologiques Organiques Dans La Deficience Mentale - Ayadi. H - Mefteh. S - Moalla. Y - Walha. A - Ghribi. F - Tunisie 

RESUME : Lobjectif de notre tude a t de relever les facteurs organiques ventuellement tiologiques chez les enfants atteints de dficience mentale.

Matriel & Mthodes :Ltude tait rtrospective portant sur 334  dossiers denfants et adolescents ayant consult au service de pdopsychiatrie du CHU Hdi Chaker de Sfax entre janvier 1998 et dcembre 2001 et atteints de dficience mentale (CFTMEA R 2000).

Rsultats

Les facteurs tiologiques organiques ont t prsents dans 66,2 % des cas.

Les facteurs organiques associs ou antrieurs la maladie incrimins dans la gense de la dficience mentale taient nots dans 66,2 % des cas. Ils taient type de :

Facteurs antnataux dans 26,1 % des cas.

Facteurs prnataux dans 18,6 % des cas.

Facteurs post nataux dans 6 % des cas.

Infirmits et affections somatiques au long cours dans 13,2 % des cas.

Convulsion et pilepsie dans 33,8 % des cas.

Conclusion :

Les facteurs incrimins dans la gense de la dficience mentale sont multiples.

Ceci concorde avec celles de la littrature.

Tenir compte de ces facteurs notamment de ceux ant et prnataux permet de prvenir la dficience mentale.

Mots cls: Dficience mentale, enfant, clinique, tiologie organique.

Summary : The objective of our study was to raise organic factors possibly etiologic at the children affected by mental deficiency.

Material and methods: Study was retrospective concerning 334 files of children and teenagers having consulted in the service of pdopsychiatry of CHU hdi chaker sfax; between January, 1998 and December, 2001 and affected by mental deficiency (CFTMEA R 2000).

Results

Factors etiologic organic were present in 66, 2 % of cases.

Associated organic factors or previous to the disease incriminated in the geneses of the mental deficiency were noted in 66, 2 % of cases. They were for type of:

Factors antenatal in 26,1 % of cases.

Factor prenatal in 18,6 % of cases.

Factors post natal in 6 % of cases.

Infirmities and somatic affections in the long course in 13,2 % of cases.

Convulsion and epilepsy in 33,8 % of cases.

Conclusion

Factors incriminated in the geneses of the mental deficiency are multiple.

This suits to those of the literature.

To take into account these factors notably of those ante and prenatal allows to prevent mental deficiency.

Keywords: mental Deficiency, child, clinical, organic etiologic.

 

 

         

- Approche Neuropsychologique Des Les Dysphasie Developpementales  - Saida BRAHIMI  - ALGERIE

 

Les facteurs mis en vidence dans la dfinition des dysphasies dveloppementales travers la littrature pdiatriques sont dordre : cognitif : la mmoire ; perceptif : la discrimination, la squenciation et la mise en mmoire de stimuli auditif ; neurologique : dysfonctionnement au niveau des aires associatives ; communicative : interaction de ces enfants avec leur age ; linguistique : le lexique, la syntaxe et la phonologie  sont trs atteints dans  la dysphasie,   ce que   souligne   le   chercheur orthophoniste  MONFORT M., (1996).

 

   

  

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    Dementia - Dependence Dependency - Dependent - Depersonalization Depression

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    : Dsir - Dtrioration - Douleur - Dynamique - Dysfonction - Dysharmonie - Dyskinsie - Dyspareunie

 

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